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The key challenge to membrane designers who are struggling to obtain well-optimized membranes for Salinity Gradient Power-Reverse Electrodialysis (SGP-RED), in particular, from the perspective of membrane resistance and permselectivity is the counteracting effect of these properties. For example, cross-linking increase mechanical stability as well as permselectivity of membranes but it increases the membrane resistance. How will the output power changes in these scenarios? Will having thin membranes with low very area resistance and moderate permselectivity meet the required optimum? This is a different story when working with real solutions containing several monovalent and multivalent ions. We have previously discovered that Mg2+ is a nightmare for SGP-RED. There you go! thats one of the real challenges for practical implementation of RED under real conditions. The search for optimal membranes is in progress.
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